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Gaps in research focusing on work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses is evident within developing contexts like South Africa. This study identified the relationship between work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses. Participants completed five questionnaires and multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine significant relationships between variables.
Staff issues are best associated with burnout as well as job satisfaction. Burnout explained the highest amount of variance in mental health of nurses.
These are known to compromise productivity and performance, as well as affect the quality of patient care.
Issues, such as security risks in the workplace, affect job satisfaction and health of nurses. Although this is more salient to developing contexts it is important in developing strategies and intervention programs towards improving nurse and patient related outcomes. Introduction Described as a state of physical and emotional depletion, burnout is a result of prolonged exposure to stressful working environments [ 1 ].
As such, burnout among nurses in particular has been reported to be higher than other health professionals owing to the nature of their work [ 2 ].
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Nursing requires the delivery of humane, empathetic, culturally sensitive, proficient and moral care, in working environments with limited resources and increasing responsibilities.
Such imbalance between providing high quality care and coping with stressful working environments can lead to burnout [ 3 ].
Work related stress is associated with burnout, job satisfaction and physical as well as mental health outcomes [ 345 ]. Stressors contributing to the experience of work related stress, including poor supervision, conflict with peers and patients, high job demands [ 67 ] and overtime [ 8 ] are all associated with one or more dimensions of burnout.
The Maslach Burnout Model [ 910 ] postulates that prolonged exposure to environmental and situational stressors resulting in work related stress, contributes to emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and a lack of personal accomplishment.
Similarly, work related stress resulting from stressors, such as higher workloads, as well as staff issues, including lack of resources, has been found to be associated with poor job satisfaction [ 1112 ].
Spector attributes this to a mismatch between job expectations and actual working environments, which contributes to higher levels of work related stress and lower levels of job satisfaction [ 13 ].
Research confirms higher levels of job satisfaction within less stressful working environments [ 5 ].
Stressors such as poor patient outcomes, conflict with peers, high workload and job demands as well as poor supervision and lack of support are all associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes [ 141516 ].
This breakdown prevents compensatory and anticipatory changes that aid in coping, thereby resulting in poor health outcomes such as headaches, insomnia, social dysfunction and depression [ 41920 ].
Important to note is that burnout and job satisfaction have also been found to be associated with each other as well as poor health outcomes. Although not studied extensively in relation to work related stress, existing research shows a negative relationship between burnout and job satisfaction [ 3 ].
According to the conservation of resources theory [ 2122 ], burnout directly affects health outcomes through the depletion of resources necessary for coping, thereby leading to negative states of being characterized by exhaustion, fatigue, somatization and social withdrawal [ 23 ].
With grave impact on work productivity, patient care, staff attrition and turnover rates [ 24 ], a better understanding of existing relationships between work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses is required. This is especially important in developing contexts, with majority of research exploring these relationships being conducted in developed contexts [ 252627 ].
Moreover, as a consequence of uniquely stressful work environments, burnout among South African nurses is reported to be higher than nurses working in other countries [ 242829 ]. Researchers have compared the degree of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment among South African nurses with nurses from eight different countries USA, Canada, UK, Germany, New Zealand, Japan, Russia and Armenia [ 3031 ].
Average burnout scores on each subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory showed a higher degree of emotional exhaustion This study aimed at identifying relationships between work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health among nurses.
The majority of the participants worked between 4 to 6 days and 31 to 40 h per week. Procedure This study was conducted in the year All subjects gave their informed consent for inclusion before they participated in the study.
All private and public hospitals in Gauteng province were stratified by area and size after which two private and two public hospitals were randomly chosen.
Permission to conduct the study was obtained from hospital and nurse managers at each of the chosen hospitals. For this study, unit managers were requested to distribute invitation packs containing an explanatory statement, consent form, five questionnaires and a sealable envelope.Yahoo Lifestyle is your source for style, beauty, and wellness, including health, inspiring stories, and the latest fashion trends.
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