Jews and Conversos in 15th-Century Spain. Hebrew word meaning forced converts and their descendants; Meshumadim: Muslims living under Christian rule; Sephardim: Jews living in Spain from Sepharad, the Hebrew name for Spain.
They even received a guarantee that if accused of apostasy they would be subject only to papal authority. But Paul IV —59the voice of the Counter-Reformation, dealt them an irreparable blow when he withdrew all protection previously given the Marranos and initiated a fierce persecution against them.
As a result of the anti-Marrano campaign, 25 Judaizers were burned alive in the spring of ; 26 others were condemned to the galleys, and 30 more who had been arrested were liberated only after they had paid a substantial bribe.
A document of indicates that there were some Marranos among the Spanish and Portuguese merchants in Florence who traded on a large scale with Spain and her colonies. The dukes protected them untilwhen Duke Alfonso IIbowing to ecclesiastical pressure, allowed many of them to be arrested.
Three were eventually sentto Rome to be burned at the stake in February Thereafter the city policy began to change.
Venice not only welcomed Marranos but kept the Inquisition at bay. Theologians like Paolo Sarpi even claimed that the Judaizers were outside the jurisdiction of the Inquisition because they had been baptized by force.
As it was in decline at the time, Pisa did not attract many Marranos, but Leghorn did: Emmanuel Philbert granted a special privilege to induce Jews to settle in the duchy of Savoy, intending mainly to settle Marranos from Spain and Portugal in Nice in order to develop the city into a central trading port with the East.
The privilege enraged Philip II of Spain, who considered the whole plan as seriously damaging Spain's interests in the Mediterranean as well as an incitement to Marranos to return to Judaism.
The joint pressure of Spain and the Holy See led to the rescinding of the privilege and on Nov.
This decree was probably not put into effect until when Charles Emmanuel I ordered the expulsion of all Portuguese Jews from the duchy. Though they were called "New Christians" or "Portuguese merchants," their Jewishness was an open secret.
In the large settlements they lived in their own quarters, had their own burial grounds, developed their own schools and communal institutions, and even trained their own rabbis after first importing them from abroad.
In the course of time they gradually reduced their Catholic practices and eventually abandoned Church marriage and even baptism. In they were officially recognized as Jews.
In this last town the Marranos had the misfortune of being expelled inand then, after a partial return, seeing the town captured by the Spaniards in There they lived continually under the shadow of the Inquisition; even where a tribunal of the Holy Office was not in operation, there were episcopal Inquisitions and occasional inquisitional "visitors" sent from the home countries to galvanize the search for heretics.
Sicily and Sardinia, with Inquisitions introduced in and respectively, were practically free of Judaizers by the middle of the 16th century. There was opposition to introducing the Spanish Inquisition into Naples, but the papal Inquisition took over and managed to destroy most of the Marrano community by the middle of the 17th century.
In New Christians' stay in the city was restricted to a day period and though settlement was fully authorized 11 years later, Judaizing was strictly prohibited.
Episcopal Inquisitions were always present in Latin America: Latin America in particular attracted considerable numbers of New Christians.Jewish history in the Middle Ages covers the period from the 5th to the 15th century.
During the course of this period, the Jewish population gradually shifted from the Mediterranean Basin to Eastern Europe.. Jewish tradition traces the origins of Jews to the Israelite tribes of Palestine in the late 2nd -early Ist millennium BCE.
As early as the Babylonian exile Jews, through exile under. A History of the Marranos, by Cecil Roth. giving the origins of the names, sources of information about each family, and the names of related families whose histories have been recorded.
Other features included a country-by-country guide to tracing Except for a brief introduction, the entire book is a listing of Inquisition Records in. Home History Modern Europe Spanish and Portuguese History Marranos Select Source: Print this article; Print all entries for this topic Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology COPYRIGHT The Gale Group Inc.
Maranos. A term that generally referred to the "secret" Jews of Particularly after the introduction of the Inquisition into. The tide of emigration ebbed and flowed, but was always stimulated by the advent of new disasters, such as the introduction of the *Inquisition into Spain in and Portugal in , and the recrudescence of intensive persecution of the Marranos, as in Portugal after Marrano: Marrano,, in Spanish history, a Jew who converted to the Christian faith to escape persecution but who continued to practice Judaism secretly.
It was a term of abuse and also applies to any descendants of Marranos. The origin of the word marrano is . A History of the Marranos, by Cecil Roth.
| The expulsion of the Jews from Spain in by the infamous decree of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella was the culmination of a series of anti-Jewish persecutions throughout the 14th and 15th centuries in which thousands of Jews were massacred.